Sentiment analysis Analysis Part 3  – Neural Networks

In the next set of topics we will dive into different approachs to solve the hello world problem of the NLP world, the sentiment analysis.

Check the other parts: Part1 Part2 Part3

The code for this implementation is at

Sentiment analysis is an area of research that aims to tell if the sentiment of a portion of text is positive or negative.

The Code

We will use two machine learning libraries:

  • scikit-learn to create onehot vectors from our text and split the dataset into train, test and validation;
  • tensorflow to create the neural network and train it.

Our dataset is composed of movie reviews and labels telling whether the review is negative or positive. Let’s load the dataset:

The reviews file is a little big, so it is in zip format. Let’s Extract it with the the zipfile module:

import zipfile
with zipfile.ZipFile("", 'r') as zip_ref:

Now that we have the reviews.txt and labels.txt files, we load them to the memory:

with open("reviews.txt") as f:
    reviews ="\n")
with open("labels.txt") as f:
    labels ="\n")
reviews_tokens = [review.split() for review in reviews]

Next we load the module to transform our review inputs into binary vectors with the help of the class MultiLabelBinarizer:

from sklearn.preprocessing import MultiLabelBinarizer

onehot_enc = MultiLabelBinarizer()

After that we split the data into training and test set with the train_test_split function. We then split the test set in half to generate a validation set:

from sklearn.model_selection import train_test_split

X_train, X_test, y_train, y_test = train_test_split(reviews_tokens, labels, test_size=0.4, random_state=None)

split_point = int(len(X_test)/2)
X_valid, y_valid = X_test[split_point:], y_test[split_point:]
X_test, y_test = X_test[:split_point], y_test[:split_point]

We then define two functions: label2bool, to convert the string label to a binary vector of two elements and get_batch, that is a generator to return parts of the dataset in a iteration:

def label2bool(labels):
    return [[1,0] if label == "positive" else [0,1] for label in labels]
def get_batch(X, y, batch_size):
  for batch_pos in range(0,len(X),batch_size):
yield X[batch_pos:batch_pos+batch_size], y[batch_pos:batch_pos+batch_size] 

Tensorflow connects expressions in structures called graphs. We first clear any existing graph , then get the vocabulary length and declare placeholders that will be used to input our text data and labels:


vocab_len = len(onehot_enc.classes_)
inputs_ = tf.placeholder(dtype=tf.float32, shape=[None, vocab_len], name="inputs")
targets_ = tf.placeholder(dtype=tf.float32, shape=[None, 2], name="targets")

This post does not intend to be a tensorflow tutorial, for more details visit

We then create our neural network:

  • h1 is the hidden layer that received as input the text words vectors;
  • logits is the final layer that receives the h1 as input;
  • output is the result of applying the sigmoid function to the logits;
  • loss is the loss expression to calculate the current error of the neural network;
  • optimizer is the expression to adjust the weights of the neural network in order to reduce the loss expression;
  • correct_pred and accuracy are used to calculate the current accuracy of the neural network ranging from 0 to 1.
h1 = tf.layers.dense(inputs_, 500, activation=tf.nn.relu)
logits = tf.layers.dense(h1, 2, activation=None)
output = tf.nn.sigmoid(logits)

loss = tf.reduce_mean(tf.nn.softmax_cross_entropy_with_logits(logits=logits, labels=targets_))

optimizer = tf.train.AdamOptimizer(0.001).minimize(loss)

correct_pred = tf.equal(tf.argmax(logits, 1), tf.argmax(targets_, 1))
accuracy = tf.reduce_mean(tf.cast(correct_pred, tf.float32), name='accuracy')

We then train the network, periodically printing its current accuracy and loss:

epochs = 10
batch_size = 3000

sess = tf.Session()

# Initializing the variables
for epoch in range(epochs):
    for X_batch, y_batch in get_batch(onehot_enc.transform(X_train), label2bool(y_train), batch_size):         
        loss_value, _ =[loss, optimizer], feed_dict={
            inputs_: X_batch,
            targets_: y_batch
        print("Epoch: {} \t Training loss: {}".format(epoch, loss_value))

    acc =, feed_dict={
        inputs_: onehot_enc.transform(X_valid),
        targets_: label2bool(y_valid)

    print("Epoch: {} \t Validation Accuracy: {}".format(epoch, acc))

test_acc =, feed_dict={
    inputs_: onehot_enc.transform(X_test),
    targets_: label2bool(y_test)
print("Test Accuracy: {}".format(test_acc))

With this network we got an accuracy of 90%! With more data and using a bigger network we can improve this result even further!

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